The Balkh Art and Cultural Heritage Project 
  • 1

Persian and Arabic Sources

(Prepared by Dr Arezou Azad):

Abū al-Layth al-Samarqandī (d. 373/983), Tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-karīm ‛Bahr al-‛ulūm,' ed. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm Aḥmad al-Zaqqa (Baghdad: Matbaʿat al-irshād, 1985—).
___. al-Nawāzil min al-fatāwā, MS 45 Hk 690, copied in 860/1455, Manisa İl Halk Kütüpḫanesi (‛Manisa 690').
___. Fatāwā al-Nawāzil (Beirut: Dār al-kutub al-ʿilmiyya, 2004).

Abū Nuʿaym al-Iṣfahānī al-Ḥāfiẓ (d. 430/1038), Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd Allāh, Ḥilyat al-awliyā wa-ṭabaqāt al-aṣfiyaʿ, ed. ʿAṭāʾMuṣtafā ʿAbd al-Qādir, in 12 vols (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʾIlmīya, 1997).
___. (Cairo: Maktabat al-Khānjī and Maṭbaʿat al-Saʿāda, 1932).
Abū al-Qāsim al-Kaʿbī al-Balkhī (d. 319/931), Faḍl al-iʾtizāl wa ṭabāqāt al-muʾtazilatū, ed. Fuʿād Sayyīd (Tunis: al-Dār al-Tūnisīya lil-Nashr, 1974).

Aflākī, Shams al-Dīn Aḥmad (fl. 754/1353-4), The Feats of the Knowers of God: Manāqīb al-ʿārifīn, ed. John O'Kane, Leiden, 2002.

Anon., Ḥudūd al-ʿālam = "The Regions of the World"; a Persian Geography, 372 A.H.-982 A.D, tr. Vladimir Minorsky, ed. C.E. Bosworth. 2nd ed. London: Luzac, 1970 [1937].
___. rev. ed. Maryam Mīr-Aḥmadī et al. (Tehran: Chāp-khāna-yi Dānishgāh-i al-Zahrāʾ, 1383 H.Sh./2004-5).

Anon., Tārīkh-i Sīstān (c. 448/1062), ed. Jaʿfar Mudarris Sādiqī (Tehran: Nashr-i Markaz, 1373H.Sh./1994).

Avesta - Die Heiligen Bücher der Parsen, ed. & tr. Fritz Wolff (Strassburg: Karl J. Trübner Verlag, 1910).

Badakhshī, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ ibn Amīr ʿAbdullāh ibn Amīr ʿAbd al-Raḥman ibn Shaykh Khalīl Allāh (fl. 1003/1594-5),Mazārāt-i Balkh, MS Kabul National Library.

al-Bākharzī, Alī b. Iḥsan b. ʿAlī b. Abī al-Ṭayyib (d. 467/1075), Dumyat al-qaṣr wa ʿuṣrat ahl al-ʿaṣr, ed. Muḥammad Altūnjī (Beirut, 1414/1993).

al-Balādhurī (d. 279/892), Futūḥ al-buldān, ed. M. J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1866).
___. Futūḥ al-buldān, ed. Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Munajjid (Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahda al-Misrīya, 1956-7).
___. The Origins of the Islamic State: Being a Translation from the Arabic, Accompanied with Annotations, Geographic and Historic Notes of the Kitâb Futûh Al-Buldân of Al-Imâm Abū-l ʿAbbâs Aḥmad Ibn-Jâbir Al-Balâdhuri, tr. Francis C. Murgotten, in 2 vols (New York: Columbia University Press, 1924).

Balʿamī (d. ca. 363/974), Tarjuma-yi tārīkh-i Ṭabarī. Qismat marbūṭ bi Īrān, ed. Muḥammad Jawād Mashkūr (Tehran: Kitābfurūshī-yi Khayyām, 1337H.Sh./1958-9).

Bayhaqī, Abū al-Faḍl (d. 470/1077), Tārīkh-i Bayhaqī, ed. Alī Akbar Fayyāḍ et al. (Tehran: Kitābkhāna-yi Millī-yi Īrān, 1383 H.Sh./2004-2005).

al-Bukhārī, Abū Naṣr (d. mid-tenth century), Sirr al-silsila, ed. Muḥammad Ṣādiq (Najaf, 1962).

Bundārī, al-Fath ibn ʿAlī (fl. mid-thirteenth century), Histoire des Seldjoucides de l'Irâq / par al-Bondârî, d'après Imâd ad-Dîn al-Kâtib al-Isfahânî; texte arabe publié d'après les MSS d'Oxford et de Paris, ed. M. Th. Houtsma (Leiden: Brill, 1889).

al-Dhahabī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (d. 748/1348), Mīzān al-iʿtidāl fī naqd al-rijāl, ed. Muḥammad Badr al-Dīn al-Naṣānī Ḥalabī, in 2 vols (Cairo: Muḥammad Amīn al-Khanjī, 1325/1907).
___. Mīzān al-iʿtidāl fī naqd al-rijāl, ed. Muḥammad al-Bijāwī, in 4 vols (Cairo, 1382/1963).
___. Siyar aʿlam al-nubalāʾ, in 25 vols (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1981-1988).

al-Gharnaṭī, Abū Ḥāmid (d. 565/1170), Tuḥfat al-albāb (or al-aḥbāb) wa-nukhbat al-aʿjāb, in Ferrand, Gabriel, ‛Le Tuḥfat al-albāb,' JA 207 (1925), pp. 1-148, 195-304.

Gardīzī, Zayn al-akhbār (c. 440-443/1049-52), ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī (Tehran: Intishārāt-i Bunyād-i Farhang-i Īrān, 1347 H.Sh./1968).

Ḥajjī Khalīfa Kātib Celebī (d. 1067/1657), Kashf al-zunūn, in 2 vols (Istanbul: Maarif Matbaasi, 1941).

al-Ḥākim al-Nīshāpūrī ibn al-Bayyiʿ, Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh (d. 405/1014), in Frye, Richard, The Histories of Nishapur(London: Mouton, 1965).

al-Ḥakīm al-Samarqandī, Isḥāq ibn Muḥammad (fl. 279-95/892-907), Sawād al-aʿẓam (Istanbul, 1204/1886).

Hamīd al-Dīn Balkhī (d. 559/1164), Maqāmāt-i Hamīdī, ed. Riḍā Anzābī Nizhād, Tehran, 1365/1986.

al-Harawī al-Mawṣilī, ʿAlī ibn Abī Bakr (d. 611/1215), Guide des lieux de pèlerinages, tr. Sourdel-Thomine (Damascus, Institut français de Damas: 1952-7).

Ibn Abī al-Wafāʾ ʿAbd al-Qādir ibn Muḥammad al-Qurashī (d. 775/1373), al-Jawāhir al-muḍīya fī ṭabaqāt al-ḥanafīya, in 2 vols (Hyderabad: Maṭbaʿāt Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-ʿUthmānīya, 1332/1913).
___. Al-Jawāhir al-muḍīya fī ṭabaqāt al-ḥanafīya, in 2 vols (Cairo, 1967).
___. Al-Jawāhir al-muḍīya fī ṭabaqāt al-ḥanafīya, ed. ʿAbd al-Fattāḥ Muḥammad Ḥulw, in 3 vols (Cairo: Matbaʿāt ʿĪsā al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1978).

Ibn al-Athīr, ʿIzz al-Dīn Abu al-Ḥasan ʿAlī (d. 630/1233), al-Lubāb fī tahdhib al-ansāb (Leiden: Brill, 1840-51).
___. Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh, in 11 vols (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīya, 1998).

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa (d. 770/1368-9 or 779/1377), The Travels of Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 1325-1354, tr. H.A.R. Gibb and C.F. Beckingham, in 5 vols (Cambridge & London: The Hakluyt Society at the University Press, 1958-2000).

Ibn al-Faqīh (d. after 292/905), Kitāb al-Buldān, ed. M.J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1967).
___. Collections of Geographical Works by Ibn al-Faqīh, Ibn Faḍlān, Abū Dulaf al-Khazrajī, Ed. Fuat Sezgin (Frankfurt am Main: Institute for the History of Arabic-Islamic Science, 1987).

Ibn Funduq al-Bayhaqī (d. 565/1169), Lubāb al-ansāb, ed. Mahdī al-Rajavī (Qum, 1410)
___. Tārīkh-i Bayhaq, ed. Aḥmad Bahmanyār ([Tehran]: Kitābfurūshī-yi Furūghī, n/d [1317H.Sh./1938]).

Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī (d. 852/1449), Kitāb Lisān al-Mīzān, in 6 vols (Hyderabad: Maṭbaʿat Majlis Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif al-Niẓāmiyya, 1329-31/1912-13).

Ibn Ḥawqal (c. 378/988), Ṣūrat al-arḍ, ed. M.J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1873).
___. tr. J.H. Kramers and Gaston Wiet, Configuration de la Terre (Beirut: Commission Internationale pour la Traduction des Chefs-d'œuvre, 1964).

Ibn al-ʿImād (d. 1089/1679), Shadharāt al-dhahab fī akhbār min dhahab (Cairo: Maktabat al-Qudsī, 1350-1/1931-2).

Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597/1200), al-Muntaẓam fī tārīkh al-umūm wa al-mulūk, ed. ʿAṭāʾ Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir and ʿAṭā Muṣtafā ʿAbd al-Qādir, in 18 vols (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīya, 1413/1992).

Ibn Khallikān (d. 681/1282), Kitāb Wafayāt al-aʿyān = Ibn Khallikān's Biographical Dictionary, tr. Mac Guckin de Slane (Paris: printed for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1842-71).

Ibn Miskawayh (d. 421/1030), The Tajārib al-Umam, or, History of Ibn Miskawayh (Abu ‛Ali Ahmad B. Muhammad): Reproduced in Facsimile from the ms. at Constantinople in the Âyâ Sûfiyya Library, Leiden & London, n/d.

Ibn al-Nadīm (d. 385/995), Fihrist, tr. Bayard Dodge (New York: Columbia University Press, 1970).

Ibn Quṭlūbughā, Abī al-ʿAdl Zayn al-Dīn Qāsim (d. 879/1474), Tāj al-tarājam fī ṭabaqāt ḥanafīya (Baghdad: Makātabāt al-Mathannā, 1962).

Ibn Taymiyya (d. 728/1328), Majmūʿ fatāwā Shaykh al-Islām Aḥmad b. Taymiyya (Riyadh: Dār ʿĀlam al-Kutub, 1991).

al-Idrīsī (fl. 548/1154), Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad, Kitāb Nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq (c. 548/1154), ed. M.J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1974).

Iskandar Beg Munshī (d. ca. 1042/1632), Tārīkh-i ʿālam-ārā-yi ʿAbbāsī, ed. Īraj Afshār, in 2 vols ([Isfahan]: Muʿassasa-yi muṭbūʿāt-i ʿālī-yi Amīr Kabīr, 1334-5/1956-7).

al-Iṣṭakhrī (fl. 338/950), Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad Abū Isḥāq al-Fārisī (), Kitāb Masālik al-mamālik, ed. M.J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1927).

Juwaynī, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAṭā al-Malik (d. 681/1283), The Taríkh-i-Jahán-gushá of 'Aláu d-Dín 'Atá Malik-i-Juwayní (composed in A.H. 658=A.D. 1260), ed. Mirza Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhāb Qazwīnī (London: Luzac, 1912-37).
___. Tārīkh-i Jahāngushāy, ed. Muḥammad Qazwīnī, in 3 vols (Tehran: Intishārāt-i Afrāsiyāb, 1382/2003-4).
___. tr. John Boyle, The History of the World Conqueror (Manchester & Paris: Manchester University Press & UNESCO Publishing, 1997 [1958]).

al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, (d. 463/1071), Taʾrīkh Baghdād, ed. Aḥmad ibn al-Ṣiddīq, in 14 vol. (Cairo: Maktabat al-Khānjī, 1349/1931).

al-Khazrajī al-Anṣārī, Ṣāfī al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn ʿAbdullāh (d. after 923/1517-8), Khulāṣa tadhhīb tahdhīb al-kamāl fī ismāʾ al-rijāl (Cairo, 1322/1904).
___. Khulāṣa tadhhīb tahdhīb al-kamāl fī ismāʾ al-rijāl (Ḥalab: Maktab al-Maṭbūʿāt al-Islāmīya, 1971).

Khwāndamīr, Ghīyāth al-Dīn (d. 942/1535-6?), Tārīkh-i ḥabīb al-siyār fī akhbār-i afrād-i bashar (Tehran: Kitāb-khāna-yi Khayyām, 1333 H.Sh./1954).

Kisāʾī (d. unknown), Vita prophetarum (Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ), ed. Isaac Eisenberg, in 2 vols (Leiden: Brill, 1922-23).

Laknawī al-Hindī (d. 1304/1886), Kitāb al-fawāʾid al-bahīya fī tarājim al-ḥanafīya, ed. Muḥammad Badr al-Dīn al-Naʿsānī Ḥalabī (Cairo, 1324/1906).

al-Māfarrukhī, al-Mufaddal ibn Saʿd (d. ca. 475/1082), Maḥāsin Isfahan (Tehran: Matbaʿāt Majlis, 1312/1933).

al-Maqdīsī (fl. 380/990), Kitāb Aḥsan al-taqāsīm fī maʿrifat al-ʿaqālīm, ed. M.J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1906).
___. tr. Basil Collins and Muhammad Hamid al-Tai, The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions (Doha, Qatar and Reading: Centre for Muslim Contribution to Civilization, and Garnet, 1994).

al-Marwazī al-Azwarqānī (d. after 614/1217), al-Fakhrī fī ansāb al-ṭālibiyyūn, ed. Mahdī al-Rajawī (Qum, 1409).

al-Masʿūdī (d. 345/956), Kitab al-Tanbīh wa al-ishrāf, ed. M.J. de Goeje, 2nd ed (Leiden: Brill, 1893-4).
___. Murūj al-dhahab wa maʿādin al-jawhar, ed. Charles Pellat, in 7 vols (Beirut: Manshūrāt al-Jāmiʿa al-Lubnānīya, 1966-7).

Mīrkhwānd, Muḥammad ibn Khāwandshāh (d. 903/1498), Rawḍat al-ṣafāʿ, ed. ʿAbbās Zaryāb, 2 vols (Tehran: ʿIlmī, [13]73 H.Sh./ [1994]).
___. The Rauzat-Us-Safa, or, Garden of Purity / by Muhammad Bin Khāvendshāh Bin Mahmûd, Commonly Called Mirkhond; Translated from the Original Persian by E. Rehatsek, and Called by Him ‛Sacred and Profane History According to the Moslem Belief,' ed. F.F. Arbuthnot, in 5 vols (London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1891-4).

al-Mizzī, Yūsuf ibn al-Zakī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 742/1341), Tahdhīb al-kamāl fī asmāʿ al-rijāl, ed. Bashshār ʿAwwād Maʿrūf, in 35 vols (Beirut: Muʿassasat al-Risāla, 1980-92).

Muḥammad ibn Hindūshāh Nakhjawānī (fl. mid-fourteenth century), Dastūr al-kātib, ed. A.A. Ali-zade, in 2 vols (Moscow: Nauka, 1976).

Muḥammad Muʾmin Balkhī (fl. eighteenth century), Jarīda-yi Balkh (Kabul: Ministry of Information and Culture, 1978).

Mustawfī Qazwīnī, Ḥamdullāh (d. after 740/1339-40), Nuzhat al-Qulūb, ed. Muḥammad Dabīr Siyāqī (Qazwīn: Intishārāt-i Ḥadīth-i Imrūz, 1381 H.Sh./2002-3).
___. The Geographical Part of the Nuzhat al-Qulūb, ed. Guy Le Strange (Leiden: Brill, 1919).

Narshakhī, Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar (c. 332/943-4), Tārīkh-i Bukhārā, ed. Mudarris Raẓawī et al. ([Tehran]: Intishārāt-i Bunyād-i Farhang-i Īrān, 1351/1972-73).
___. The History of Bukhara, tr. Richard Frye (Cambridge, Mass.: Mediaeval Academy of America, 1954).

al-Nasafī, Najm al-Dīn (d. 537/1142), al-Qand fī Dhikr ʿulamāʾ Samarqand, ed. Naẓr Muḥammad al-Fāryābī, (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1412/1991).
___. ed. Yūsuf al-Hādī (Tehran: Mīrāth Maktūb, 1378 H.Sh./1999).
___. Qandiyya, ed. Īraj Afshār (Tehran: Maktabatal-Kawthar, 1334 H.Sh./1955).

Niẓām al-Mulk (d. 485/1092), Traité de gouvernement = Siyaset-name : composé pour le Sultan Malik Chah / Nizam al-Mulk ; traduit du persan et annoté par Charles Schefer ; et préfacé par Jean-Paul Roux, tr. Charles Schefer (Paris: Sinbad, 1893).

Niẓāmī ʿArūḍī (c. ca. 551/1156), Chahār Maqāla, ed. Muḥammad Qazwīnī et al., Tehran, 1331/1952.
___. Revised Translation of the Chahār Maqāla (‛Four Discourses'), tr. E.G. Browne (London: Luzac, 1921).

Qāshānī (fl. 703-16/1304-16), Tārīkh-i Ūljaytū, ed. Abū al-Qāsim al-Qāshānī (Tehran, 1348 H.Sh./1969).

al-Qushayrī (d. 465/1072), al-Risāla al-Qushayriyya fī ʿilm al-taṣṣawūf, ed. Maʿrūf Zurayq and ʿAlī ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Balṭajī (Beirut: Dār al-Jīl, 1990).
___. Al-Qushayrī's Epistle on Sufism - al Risala al-Qushayriyya fī ʿilm al-taṣawwuf, tr. Alexander Knysh (Reading: Garnet Publishing, 2007).

Rashīd al-Dīn, Faḍlullāh (d. 718/1318), Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, ed. Muḥammad Rawshan and Muṣṭafā Mūsawī, in 4 vols (Tehran: Nashr-i Alburz, 1373 H.Sh./1994).
___. Jāmiʿ al-tawārīkh, British Museum manuscript, Add 7, 628.

al-Rāzī, Fakhr al-Dīn (d. 606/1209), al-Shajara al-mubāraka fī ansāb al-ṭālibiyya, ed. Maḥmūd al-Marfiashī (Qum, 1410).

Ṣafādī, Khalīl ibn Aybak (d. 674/1363), al-Wāfī bi ‛l-wafayāt, in 30 vols (Leipzig: Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft, 1931-).

al-Sakhawī (d. 902/1497), al-Ḍawʾ al-lāmiʿ fī aʿyān al-qarn al-tāsiʿ, ed. Ḥusām al-Dīn al-Qudsī, in 12 vols (Cairo, 1353-5/1934-6).
___. al-Iʿlān bi-al-tawbīkh li-man damma ahl al-tawārīkh, in Franz Rosenthal, A History of Muslim Historiography (Leiden: Brill, 1997).

al-Samʿānī (d. 562/1166), ed. Al-Ansāb, ed. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Yaḥyā Muʿallimā, in 13 vols (Hyderabad: Maṭbūʿāt Dāʿirat al-Maʿārif al-ʿUthmānīya, 1962).

Sanāʾī (fl. early twelfth century), Ḥadīqa al-ḥaqīqa, ed. Mudarris Raḍawī (Tehran: Chāp-khāna-yi shirkat-i Ṭabʿa-yi Kitāb 1951).

al-Ṣarīfīnī, Ibrāhīm ibn Muḥammad (d. 641/1243), Muntakhāb min siyāq, ed. Muḥammad Aḥmad al-ʿAzīz (Beirut, 1993).

Sarakhsī, Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (d. 481/1082-3), Kitāb al-Mabsūṭ, ed. Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad Ḥasan Muḥammad Ḥasan Ismāʿīl al-Shāfiʿī, in 30 vols (Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīya, 2001)
___. Kitāb al-Mabsūṭ, in 30 vols (Cairo: Matbaʿat al-Saʿada, 1906-13).

Ṣayfī Harawī (c. ca. 722/1322), Tārīkh-i Harāt, ed. Khān Bahādur K.M. Asadullāh (Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1944).

Shaykh al-Islām al-Wāʿiẓ (c. 610/1214) & ʿAbdullāh b. Muḥammad b. al-Qāsim al-Ḥusaynī (c. 676/1278), Faḍāʾil-i Balkh, ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī (Tehran: Intishārāt-i Bunyād-i Farhang-i Īrān, 1350 H.Sh./1971).
___. MS, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, ‛Persan-115'
___. MSS, Department of Oriental Manuscripts, St Petersburg Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ‛C-453-3' and C-453-1'
___. Uncatalogued MS (I call ‛PAK'), private collection of deceased Khalil al-Rahman Dawoodi, Lahore.

al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923), Taʾrīkh al-rasūl wa al-mulūk, ed. M.J. de Goeje, in 15 vols and 3 series, (Leiden: Brill, 1879-1901).
___. The History of al-Ṭabarī. Vol. II. Prophets and Patriarchs, tr. William Brinner (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987).
___. The History of al-Ṭabarī. Vol. V. The Sāsānids, the Byzantines, the Lakhmids, and Yemen, tr. C.E. Bosworth (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999).
___. The History of al-Ṭabarī. Vol. XXV. The End of Expansion, tr. Khalid Blankinship (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989).
___. The History of al-Ṭabarī. Vol. XXIII. The Zenith of the Marwānid House, tr. Martin Hinds (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990).
___. The History of al-Ṭabarī. Volume XXXII. The Reunification of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphate, tr. C.E. Bosworth (New York: State University of New York Press, 1987).

Ṭāshköprüzāda (d. 968/1561), ʿIṣām al-Dīn Aḥmed ibn Muṣṭafā ibn Khalīl, Abū al-Khayr, Miftāḥ al-saʿāda wa miṣbāḥ al-siyāda fī mawḍūʿāt al-ʿulūm, in 2 vols (Hyderabad, 1329/1911).
___. Miftāḥ al-saʿāda wa miṣbāḥ al-siyāda fī mawḍūʿāt al-ʿulūm, ed. Kāmil Kāmil Bakrī, in 4 vols (Cairo, Dār al-Kutub al-Ḥadītha, [1968]).

Thaʿālibī (d. /1037- 8), Laṭāʾif al-maʿārif, ed. Peter de Jong (Leiden: Brill, 1867).
___. The Latāʾif al-maʿārif of Thaʿālibi: The Book of Curious and Entertaining Information, tr. C.E. Bosworth (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1968).

ʿUtbī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Jabbār (d. 427/1036 or 431/1040), al-Yamīnī, ed. Iḥsān Dhunūn al-Thāmirī (Beirut: Dār al-Talīʿa lī l-Tibāʿa wa al-Nashr, 1424/2004).

Wālī, Maḥmūd ibn Amīr (c. 1055/1645), Baḥr al-aṣrār, MSS BL I.O. 1496, IVANRUZ 7418.

Waṣṣāf (fl. 702/1303), Taḥrīr-i Tārīkh-i Waṣṣāf, ed. ʿAbd al-Muḥammad ʿĀyatī (Tehran: Muʿassasa-yi muṭālaʿāt wa taḥqīqāt-i farhangī, 1371-2 H.Sh./1993).

Wirūsājī, Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ (c. 1003/1594-5), Haftād mashāyikh-i Balkh, ed. Muḥammad Ḥanīf (Tehran, n/d).
___. Mazārāt-i Balkh, HS Kabul, ms. Inv. No. 371.

al-Xwārazmī, Abū ʿAbdullāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf al-Kātib (fl. ca. 366-87/976-97), Mafātīḥ al-ʿulūm, ed. Gerlof van Vloten (Leiden: Brill, 1895 [1968]).
___. Bosworth, C.E. and Sir Gerard Clauson, ‛Al-Xwārazmī on the peoples of Central Asia,' JRAS (1965): pp. 2-12

al-Yaʿqūbī (d. after 292/905), Kitāb al-Buldān, ed. M. J. de Goeje (Leiden: Brill, 1860).
___. tr. Gaston Wiet, Les Pays (Cairo: l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, 1937).

Yāqūt ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥamawī (d. 626/1229), Muʿjam al-Buldān, in 5 vols (Beirut: Dār Ṣādir, 1955).
___. Barbier de Meynard, Charles, Dictionnaire Géographique, historique et littéraire de la Perse et des contrées adjacentes: extrait du Mo'djem el-Bouldân de Yaqout et complété à l'aide de documents arabes et persans pour la plupart inédits (Paris: Imprimerie Impériale, 1861).
___. The Irshād al-arīb ilā maʿrifat al-adīb: Or, Dictionary of Learned Men of Yāqūt, tr. David Samuel Margoliouth, in 7 vols (London: Luzac, 1923-30).

Documents and Studies (Prepared by Dr Arezou Azad):

ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Ḥabībī, ‛Dar pāsukh-i intiqād bar ‛Faḍāʾil-i Balkh,'' Rāhnamā-yi kitāb 17/no. 7-9 (1353 H.Sh./1974): pp. 593-601.

Adamec, Ludwig, Historical and Political Gazetteer of Afghanistan. Vol. 4 - Mazar-i Sharif and North-Central Afghanistan(Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, 1979).

Akhmedov, Buri, ‛Balkhskoe Khānstvo V XVI-Pervoi Plovine XVIII V' [The Balkh Khānate from the Sixteen to the First Half of the Eighteenth Century], Avtoreferat Doktorskoi Dissertatsii, Leningrad, 1974.
___. Istoriia Balkha (XVI-pervaia plovina XVIII v.), Tashkent, 1982

Akiner, Shirin, ‛Conceptual Geographies of Central Asia,' in Shirin Akiner, Sander Tideman and Jon Hay (eds), Sustainable Development in Central Asia (Richmond: Curzon, 1998): pp. 3-62.
Allen, Terry, Five Essays on Islamic Art (USA: Solipsist Press, 1988): pp. 79-83.

Alram, Michael, et al., Coins, Art, and Chronology: Essays on Pre-Islamic History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands (Vienna: Vlg. d. Öst. Akad, 1999).

Anisi, Alireza, ‛The Masjid-i Malik in Kirman,' Iran xlii (2004).

Arberry, Arthur John, Muslim Saints and Mystics—Episodes from the Tadhkirat al-Auliyaʾ (‛Memorial of the Saints') by Farid al-Din Attar (London: Arkana, 1990 [1966]).

Aubin, Jean, ‛Eléments pour l'étude des agglomérations urbaines dans l'Iran mediéval,' in Albert Hourani et al., The Islamic City (Oxford and Philadelphia: Cassirer and University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970): pp. 68-69.

Bailey, Harold, ‛Iranica,' BSOAS 11 (1943): pp. 1-6.

Barthold, V.V., Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion (London: Luzac, 1968 [1928]).
___. An Historical Geography of Iran (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Berndt, Ulrike, ‛Die Stadtgeschichten von Balkh,' unpublished Master's thesis, University of Halle, 2000.

Bivar, A.D.H., ‛The inscription of Sālār Khalīl in Afghanistan,' JRAS 2 (1977), 145-149.

van Bladel, Kevin, ‛The Bactrian background of the Barmakids,' in Anna Akasoy et al. (ed.), Islam and Tibet-interactions Along the Musk Routes (Aldershot: Ashgate, in press).

Blochet, Edgar, Catalogue des Manuscrits Persans (Paris, Imprimérie Nationale, 1905).

Bosworth, C.E., Sīstān under the Arabs, from the Islamic conquest to the rise of the Ṣaffārids (30-250/651-864) (Rome: IsMEO, 1968).
___. ‛The political and dynastic history of the Iranian world (A.D. 1000-1217),' in CHI. Vol. 5. The Saljūq and Mongol Period, ed. J.A. Boyle (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968): pp. 1-202.
___. The history of the Ṣaffārids of Sistan and the Maliks of Nimruz (247/861 to 949/1542-3), Costa Mesa & New York, 1994.
___. ‛Abū Ḥafṣ̣ ʿUmar al-Kirmānī and the rise of the Barmakids,' BSOAS 57/2 (1994): pp. 268-282.
___. ‛The Persian Contribution to Islamic Historiography,' in Richard Hovannisian and Georges Sabagh (ed), The Persian Presence in the Islamic World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
___. ‛Sistan and its local histories,' Iranian Studies 33 (2000): pp. 31-43.
___. ‛Balkh-ii. history of the Arab Conquest to the Mongols,' EIr.
___. Book review: Geoffrey Khan, Arabic Documents from Early Islamic Khurasan (Studies in the Khalili Collection, Volume V). The Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Press, London, 2007. Pp. 183. ISBN: 1 87478 071 4. (forthcoming)

Briant, Pierre, From Cyrus to Alexander (Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns, 2002).

Brice, William, An Historical Atlas of Islam (Leiden: Brill, 1981).

de Bruijn, J.T.P., Of Piety and Poetry—the Interaction of Religion and Literature in the Life and Works of Ḥakīm Sanāʾī of Ghazna (Leiden: Brill, 1983).

Bulliet, Richard, ‛City Histories in Medieval Iran,' Iranian Studies 1/no. 3 (1968): pp. 104-109.

Çağman, Filiz and Zeren Tanindi, first published in Topkapı Saray Museum. Islamic Miniature Painting, Istanbul, 1979, translated and adapted from Topkapı Saray Müzesi, Tokyo, 1980, and Herrsching am Ammersee, 1986, by J.M. Rogers inThe Topkapi Saray Museum – The Albums and Illustrated Manuscripts (Boston: Little, Brown & Company, n/d).

Catalogue des manuscripts de la Bibliothèque du Seu Monseigneur le Cardinal Mazarin, fait par nous, M. Pierre de Carcavy et M. François de la Poterie, en consequence de l'Arest du Conseil de l'Estat du 12e Janvier 1668. B.N. N.a.fr. 5763, fol. 4b.

Chabbi, Jacqueline, ‛Remarques sur le développement historique des mouvements ascétiques au Khurāsān,' Studia Islamica 46 (1977): pp. 5-72.

Chavannes, Édouard, Documents sur les Tou-Kiue (Turcs) Occidentaux, recueillis et commentés, suivi de notes additionnelles...avec une Carte (Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve, [1942]).

Christensen, Arthur, L'Iran sous les Sassanides (Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1944).

Clavijo, Ruy Gonzalez (d. 1412), Historia del Gran Tamorlan, ed. G. Argote de Molina (Sevilla, 1582).
___. Embassy of Tamerlane 1403-1406, tr. Guy Le Strange (London: G. Routledge, 1928).

Daniel, Elton, Political and Social History of Khurasan under Abbasid Rule, 747-820 (Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica, 1979).

Ethé, Hermann and Edward Edwards, Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the Library of the India Office, in 2 vols (Oxford: Printed for the India Office by H. Hart Printer to the University, 1903-37).

Farīdānī, Azarmaydukht, Balkh-kunhatarīn shahr-i īranī-yi āsiyā-yi markazī (Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, 1997).

Fedorov, Michael, ‛Qarakhanid coins of Tirmidh and Balkh as a historical source. New numismatic data on the history of the Qarakhanid dominions of Tirmidh and Balkh,' Numismatic Chronicle 163 (2003), pp. 261-285.

Fisher, Robert, Buddhist Art and Architecture (London: Thames and Hudson, 1993).

Flügel, Gustav, ‛Die Classen der hanefitischen Rechtsgelehrten,' in Abhandlungen der philologisch-historischen Classe der Königlich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (Leipzig: S. Hirzel, 1861)
___. Die arabischen, persischen und türkischen Handschriften der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Hofbibliothek zu Wien, in 2 vols (Vienna: K. K. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, 1865).

Foltz, Richard, Mughal India and Central Asia (Karachi and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

Frye, Richard, ‛City chronicles of Central Asia and Khurasan. Ta'rix-i Nīsāpūr,' in Zeki Velidi Togan (ed), Zeki Velidi Togan'a Armạğan; Symbolae in Honorem Z. V. Togan (Istanbul, 1950-55): pp. 405-420.
___. The Heritage of Persia (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1962).
___. ‛The political history of Iran under the Sasanians,' in CHI, vol. 3 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
___. The Golden Age of Persia -The Arabs in the East (London: Phoenix, 1975 [2003].

Gaube, Heinz, ‛Iranian Cities,' in Salma K. Jayyusi, Renata Holod, Attilio Petruccioli, and André Raymond (eds), City in the Islamic World, vol. 2 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008): pp. 174-177.

Ghirshman, Roman, Les Chionites-Hephthalites, MDAFA series (Paris, 1948).

Gibb, H.A.R., The Arab conquests in Central Asia (New York: AMS Press, 1970 [1923]).

Gignoux, Philippe, ‛L'inscription de Kartir à Sar Mashad,' JA (1968): pp. 387-418.

Göbl, Robert, Dokumente zur Geschichte der iranischen Hunnen in Baktrien und Indien (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1967).

Gross, Jo-Ann, ‛Authority and miraculous behaviour: reflections on karāmāt stories of Khwāja ʿUbaydullah Aḥrār,' in Leonard Lewisohn and Javād Nūrbakhsh (ed.), The Legacy of Persian Sufism (London: Khaniqahi Nimatullahi, 1992): pp. 159-171.

Halm, Heinz, Die Ausbreitung der šāfiʿitischen Rechtsschule von den Anfängen bis zum 8./14. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden: L. Reichert, 1974).

Hillenbrand, Robert, Islamic Architecture: Form, Function and Meaning (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000).
___. ‛ʿAbbāsid mosques in Iran,' in Studies in Medieval Islamic Architecture (London: Pindar Press, 2001-6).

von Hinüber, Oskar, ‛Expansion to the north: Afghanistan and Central Asia,' in Bechert et al. (eds), The World of Buddhism (London: Thames and Hudson, 1991[1984]).

Hodgson, Marshall, The Venture of Islam: Conscience and History in a World Civilization, in 3 vols (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1974).

Kaya, Eyyup Said, ‛Continuity and change in Islamic law: the concept of madhhab and the dimensions of legal disagreement in Ḥanafī scholarship of the tenth century,' in Peri Bearman, Rudolph Peters & Frank E. Vogel (eds), The Islamic School of Law (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2005.

Kennedy, Hugh, ‛The Barmakid revolution in Islamic Government,' in History and Literature in Iran: Persian and Islamic Studies in Honour of P.W. Avery (Pembroke Persian Papers, 1), ed. Charles Melville, London, 1990 [rp. 1998]: pp. 89-98.

Khan, Geoffrey, Arabic Documents from Early Islamic Khurasan (Oxford: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions, 2006).

King, Geoffrey R.D., 'The nine bay domed mosque in Islam,' Madrider Mitteilungen 30 (1989), pp. 332-390.

Klimburg-Salter, Deborah, The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist Art and Culture of the Hindu Kush (Naples and Rome: Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, 1989).

Lambton, Ann K.S., ‛Persian biographical literature,' in, Bernard Lewis and P.M. Holt (ed.), Historians of the Middle East(London: Oxford University Press, 1962): pp. 141-151.
___. ‛Persian local histories: the traditions behind them and the assumptions of their authors,' in Biancamaria Scarcia Amoretti and Lucia Rostagno (ed), Yād-Nāma in Memoria Di Alessandro Bausani (Rome: Bardi, 1991): pp. 227-238.

Lamotte, Étienne, Jean Dantinne and Sara Webb-Boin, History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Šaka Era,Louvain-la-Neuve [Belgium], 1988.

Lapidus, Ira, ‛Muslim cities and Islamic societies,' in Ira Lapidus (ed.), Middle Eastern Cities (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969): pp. 47-79.

Lazard, Gilbert, ‛Abu l-Muʾayyad Balxī,' in Yádnáme-ye Jan Rypka—Collections of Articles on Persian and Tajik Literature(Prague: Academia, 1967).

Lee, Jonathan, The ‛Ancient Supremacy': Bukhara, Afghanistan, and the Battle for Balkh, 1731-1901 (Leiden: Brill, 1996).

Le Strange, Guy, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1930 [1905]).

Levi, Scott Cameron, The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and Its Trade, 1550-1900 (Leiden: Brill, 2001).

Madelung, Wilferd, ‛The early Murjiʾa in Khurāsān and Transoxania and the spread of Hanafism, Der Islam 59 (1982): pp. 32-39.

Marquart, Joseph, Ērānšahr nach der Geographie des Ps. Moses Xorenacʿi (Berlin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1901).

Massignon, Louis, and al-Ḥallāj al-Ḥusayn ibn Manṣūr, Essai sur les origines du lexique technique de la mystique musulmane (Paris: P. Geuthner, 1922).

Mazinani-Shariati, Ali, ‛Faḍâïl-i Balkh—‛Les Ḿérites de Balkh'—Notes, correction, et traduction abregée. Thèse de doctorat d'université, Paris, Institut d'études iraniènnes library at the Université de la Sorbonne-Nouvelle (Paris III), 1963, shelfmark IEIMI ThPM 4.96.

McChesney, Robert, ‛The amīrs of seventeenth century Muslim Central Asia,' JESHO 26/no. 1 (1983): pp. 33-70.
___. Waqf in Central Asia: Four Hundred Years in the History of a Muslim Shrine, 1480-1889 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1991).
___. ‛Reconstructing Balkh: the vaqfīya of 947/1540,' in Devin DeWeese (ed.), Studies on Central Asian History in Honor of Yuri Bregel (Bloomington, Indiana: Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 2001): pp. 187-243.

Meftah, Elhameh, Jughrāfiyā-yi tārīkh-i Balkh wa Jayḥūn wa muẓāfāt-i Balkh (Tehran: Pazhūhishgāh-i ʿUlūm-i Insānī wa Muṭālaʿāt-i Farhangī, 1367H.Sh./1997).

Melikian-Chirvani, Asadollah, ‛Remarques préliminaires sur un mausolée Ghaznévide,' Arts Asiatiques 17 (1968), pp. 59-92
___. ‛La plus ancienne mosquée de Balkh,' Arts and the Islamic World 20 (1969), pp. 3-20.

Miklukho-Maklai, N.D., Opisanie tadzhikskikh i persidskikh rukopisei instituta (Collection of Tajik and Persian Manuscripts of the Institute of Asian Peoples), in 2 vols. (Moscow: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, 1961).
___. Persidskie i Tajikskie Rukopisi, in 2 vols (Moscow: Nauka, 1964).

Miller, Konrad, Mappae Arabicae, Arabische Welt- und Länderkarten des 9.-13. Jahrhunderts in arabischer Urschrift, lateinischer Transkription und Übertragung in neuzeitliche Kartenskizzen, mit einleitenden Texten (Stuttgart: Konrad Miller, 1926).

Mīr ʿĀbidīnī, Abū Ṭālib, Balkh dar tārīkh wa adab-i fārsī (Tehran: Nashr-i Ṣadūq, 1371H.Sh./1972).

Mirza Kazem Beg, ‛La marche et les progrès de la jurisprudence parmi les sectes orthodoxes musulmanes,' JA 15 (Feb-Mar 1850): pp. 158-214.

Mudarris, Muḥammad Maḥrūs ʿAbd al-Laṭīf, Mashāyikh Balkh min al-Ḥanafīya wa-mā infaradū bihi min al-masāʿil al-fiqhīya, in 2 vols (Baghdad: Wizārat al-Awqāf, 1978).

Mukhtarov, Akhror, Robert McChesney, Nadia Jamal and Michael Lustig, Balkh in the Later Middle Ages (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, 1993).

Nawshāhī, ʿĀrif, ‛Nuskha-yi naw-yāfta-yi ‛Faḍāʾil-i Balkh,'' in Maʿārif 19, no. 2 (1381 H.Sh./2002): pp. 60-81.

Olivier, Roy, ‛Identity and expression in northern Afghanistan,' in Jo-Ann Gross (ed.), Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change (Durham, North Carolina and London: Duke University Press, 1992).

Petrushevsky, Ilia P., ‛The socio-economic condition of Iran under the Īl-Khāns,' in CHI, vol. 5: pp. 483-537.

Potter, Lawrence, ‛The Kart Dynasty of Herat: Religion and Politics in Medieval Iran,' unpublished PhD thesis, New York, Columbia University, 1992.
___. ‛Herat under the Karts: social and political forces,' in ed. Neguin Yavari et al. (eds), Views from the Edge: Essays in Honor of Richard W. Bulliet (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).

Pritsak, Omeljan, Von den Karluk zu den Karachaniden, ZDMG 101 (1951): pp. 270-300.
___. ‛Āl-i Burhān,' Der Islam, 30 (1952): pp. 81-96.
___. ‛Die Karachaniden,' Der Islam 30 (1953), pp. 17-68.

Pugachenkova, Galina A., ‛Little known monuments of the Balkh area,' Art and Archaeology Research Papers 13 (1968): pp. 31-40.
___. ‛Nuh Gumbed v Balkhe,' Sovetskaia Archeologiia 3 (1970): pp. 241-250.

Radtke, Berndt, ‛Theologen und Mystiker in Ḫurāsān und Transoxanien,' ZDMG 136 (1986): pp. 538-549.

Raḥmānī Awlawī, Mehdī and Manṣūr Chaghtāyī, Tārīkh-i ʿulamā-yi Balkh, in 2 vols (Mashhad: Bunyād-i pazhūhishhā-yi Islāmī-yi Āstān-i Quds Razawī, 1383-86).

Rahnema, Ali, An Islamic Utopian: a Political Biography of Ali Shariati (London: I.B. Taurus, 1998).

Raverty, Henry, Maj., History of Hirī or Harāt and Its Dependencies: From the Formation of the Old City in the Time of the Kai-Anīān Kings of Īrān, and Annals of Khurāsān from Its Conquest by the Arabs, and Death of the Last Abbāsid(?) Monarch, Down to the Present Day and Its Last ...Ment, a Period of Just Three Thousand, Three Hundred Years, 1902?, in 7 vols (MS BL: Eur. C83-89).

Richard, Francis, Catalogue des manuscrits persans—1. Anciens Fonds (Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, 1989).

Ṣādiq Kiya, ‛Yād-dāsht-ī dar bāra-yi ārāmgāh-i zardusht dar Balkh,' in Irān-i kudā 10 (1317 H.Sh./1938): pp. 26-31.

Salakhetdinova, M.A., ‛K Istoricheskoy Toponimike Balkhskoy Oblast (A Contribution to the Historical Toponymy of the Balkh Region),' Palestinskii Sbornik 21/84 (1970), pp. 222-228.

Schefer, Charles, ‛Fezhaili Balkh,' in Chrestomathie persane à l'usage des élève de l'École spéciale des langues orientales vivantes, in 2 vols (Paris: École des langues orientales vivantes, 1883-85).

Schuyler, Eugene, Turkistān. Notes of a journey in Russian Turkistān, Khokand, Bukhara and Kuldja, in 2 vols (London, 1876).

Schwarz, Florian, Balḫ und die Landschaften am oberen Oxus XIVc Ḫurasan III, Sylloge Numorum Arabicorum in Tübingen(SNAT), gen. ed. Lutz Illisch (Tübingen: E. Wasmuth, 2002).

Schwarz, Paul, ‛Bemerkungen zu den arabischen Nachrichten über Balkh,' in Jal Dastur Cursetji Pavry (ed.), Oriental Studies in Honour of Cursetji Erachji Pavry (London: Oxford University Press, 1933): pp. 434-443.

Shaked, Shaul, Le satrape de Bactriane et son gouverneur : documents araméens du IVe s. avant notre ère provenant de Bactriane ; conférences données au Collège de France, 14 et 21 Mai 2003 (Paris: de Boccard, 2004).

Shaked, Saul and Joseph Naveh. Studies in the Khalili Collection. Aramaic Documents from Ancient Bactria (Oxford: Khalili Collections, 2012).

Sims-Williams, Nicholas, New Light on Ancient Afghanistan: The Decipherment of Bactrian. An Inaugural Lecture Delivered on 1 February 1996 (London: School of Oriental and African Studies, 1997).
___. Bactrian Documents from Northern Afghanistan – 1. Legal and Economic Documents, rev. ed. (London: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions, 2012).
___. 'The Bactrian Fragment in Manichaean Script (M1224)', in Desmond Durkin-Meierernst et al. (eds), Literarische Stoffe und ihre Gestaltung in mitteliranischer Zeit (Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 2009): 245-68.

Sirat, Abdul-Sattār and Ebbe Egede Knudsen, ‛Notes on the Arabic dialect spoken in the Balkh region of Afghanistan,' Acta orientalia 35 (1973), pp. 89-101.

Skrine, Francis Henry and Edward Denison Ross, The Heart of Asia, a history of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian khanates from the earliest times (London: Routledge, 2004 [1899]).

Sourdel-Thomine, Janine, ‛Le mausolée dit de Baba Hatim en Afghanistan,' REI 39 (1971): pp. 293-320.

Tanabe, Katsumi et al., Silk Road Coins: The Hirayama Collection: A Loan Exhibition at the British Museum, Gallery 69a, 1st April to 31st May (Kamakura-shi: Institute of Silk Road Studies, 1993).

Togan, Zeki Velidi, ‛The topography of Balkh down to the middle of the seventeenth century,' CAJ 14 (1970): pp. 277-280.

de la Vaissière, Étienne. 'Is there a 'Nationality' of the Hephthalites?' Bulletin of the Asia Institute 17 (2003): 119-32.
___. ‛De Bactres à Balkh, par le Nowbahar,' Journal Asiatique 298, no. 2 (2010): 517-33.

Vecheslov, M.G., ‛Arkheologicheskie pamiatniki v Afghanistane,' in Afganistan: Sbornik statei, (Moscow, 1924).

Welsford, Tom, ‛Loyalty, Welfare and Selfhood in Early-Modern Central Asia: The Tūqāy-Tīmūrid Takeover of Greater Mā Warā al-Nahr, 1598-1605,' unpublished thesis, Oxford, University of Oxford, 2007.

Yate, Charles Edmund, Northern Afghanistan (London: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2002 [1888]).

von Zambaur, Eduard et al., Die Münzprägungen des Islams: Zeitlich und örtlich geordnet (Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1968).

Zarrīnchiyān, Ghulām-Riḍā, ‛Faḍāʾil-i Balkh,' in Rāhnamā-yi kitāb 16/10-12 (1352 H.Sh./1974): pp. 677-684.

Ziriklī, Khayr al-Dīn, Al-ʿĀlām: Qāmūs tarājim li-Ashhar al-rijāl wa-al-nisāʾ min al-ʿarab wa-al-mustaʾribīn fī al-jāhilīya wa-al-Islām wa-al-ʿasr al-hādir, in 10 vols (Cairo: al-Matbaʾa al-ʿArabīya, 1927).

  • Brief Timeline
  • Project Milestones
  • The BACH Project
  • Recent Articles

دری ]

Bactra—the Greek name under which pre-Islamic Balkh was known—encapsulated Bronze Age settlements around 2,000 BC when its ancient water systems were built.

It was a province of the Achaemenid Empire (sixth century BC), the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of Bactria and a part of the Kushan Empire that flourished in the first to the third centuries AD.

The first surviving textual mention of ancient Bactria is in the Vendidad section of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian Holy Book. Bactria (Baxtri) is mentioned in the trilingual inscription of the Emperor Darius I (r. 522-486 BC) at Bisutun and Persepolis as one of the Achaemenid satrapies (provinces). According to varying traditions, Balkh was founded by the mythical Iranian kings Gusthasp, his father Luhrasp, or the first man, Gayumarth. The Zoroastrian Prophet Zoroaster is rumoured to have died in Balkh.

Read More

September 2011 - Launch of the BACH project

5-6 January 2012 - First BACH workshop in Oxford. Participants on the first day were limited to team members and special advisors to discuss the parameters of the BACH project, its training agenda, and practicalities, logistics and context. Day 2 included a wider audience of key experts on Afghan art, archaeology, documentary and narrative history of Balkh and comparable cities. Participants included Philippe Marquis, Roland Besenval, Edmund Bosworth, Nicholas Sims-Wiliams, Geoffrey Khan, Deborah Klimburg-Salter, James Howard-Johnston, Étienne de la Vaissière, Frantz Grenet, and Chahriyar Adle (by video link). Presentations were made on the basic topography of Balkh, the Nuh Gunbad (Hajji Piyada) site, and Zadiyan in the northern confines of the Balkh oasis, on coins, and Chinese and Arabic sources on historical Balkh. Comparanda from cities like Samarqand and Dehistan (Turkmenistan) were also considered.

April 2012 - First visit by BACH Oxford to Kabul conducted by Michael Jackson Bonner, aimed principally at working out the key elements and modalities for BACH cooperation on the ground, together with the Ministry of Information and Culture and the Délégation Archéologique Française en Afghanistan (DAFA).

Read More

The Balkh Art and Cultural Heritage project (BACH) is funded by the Leverhulme Trust and is housed at the Oriental Insititute, University of Oxford.

This project focuses on the site of Balkh in the north of Afghanistan, south of the Oxus (Amu Darya) River. It analyses a selection of archaeological artefacts and unexplored texts against which hypotheses concerning the development of early Islamic cities can be tested. Balkh was in existence (as 'Bactra') since at least the fifth century BC, becoming a major economic centre and flourishing from the third century BC before being significantly reduced (but not abandoned) in the thirteenth century through the Mongol invasions.

The BACH project is not just about research. An essential element concerns training. Each of BACH's scholarly experts acts as a mentor and trainer to an Afghan trainee to analyse the material culture from, or textual finds on, Balkh. Trainees obtain daily on-the-job training during focussed visits to Kabul by BACH team members. The training follows a pre-determined curriculum, and includes reading lists of books and articles to be discussed during training. Trainees obtain stipends, and have the opportunity to engage with an international network through their mentors.

Read More

Journal articles

Shaked, Shaul, "Early Persian Documents from Khorasan" Journal of Persianate Studies 6 (2013): pp 153-162

Azad, Arezou, "The Faḍāʾil-i Balkh and its place in Islamic historiography" IRANJournal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 50 (2012): pp 79-102

Azad, Arezou, "Female Mystics in Mediaeval Islam: the quiet legacy", Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 56 (2013): pp 53-88

Siméon P., 2012."Hulbuk: Architecture and Material Culture of the Capital of the Banijurids in Central Asia (ninth–eleventh centuries)", Muqarnas, An Annual on the Visual Cultures of the Islamic World, vol. 29, pp. 385-421.

Read More

Banner Image: Tepe Rustam of Balkh, thought to be the old Buddhist temple site of Naw Bahar. Photo by Arezou Azad

.